JEL Classification: E50.
Sidorchuk Yana, applicant for higher education of Accounting and Finance faculty, Mykolayiv National Agrarian University, Mykolayiv, Ukraine
FEATURES OF APPROACHES FOR DETERMINATION AND ESTIMATION OF PAYMENT CAPACITY AND LIQUIDITY OF BANKING INSTITUTIONS
Introduction. Today one of the most important tasks of a commercial bank is to ensure its financial stability. The external appearance of financial stability of the banking institution is its solvency and liquidity. If a banking institution works at a loss, it leads to a reduction in its solvency, which automatically undermines the reputation and interest of the clients. Therefore, the reduction of liquidity and solvency in the condition of loss-making activities threatens the existence of a banking institution, which reflecting the relevance and importance of studying this problem.
Purpose. The main purpose of the article is to study the essence of the concept of “solvency” and “liquidity”, to identify the relationship and differences between these concepts, as well as study solvency and liquidity standards.
Results. One of the important indicators that characterizes the financial stability of commercial banks is solvency and liquidity, which they reflect the ability of banking institutions to ensure the timely fulfillment of their monetary obligations. The article deals with the concept of solvency and liquidity, the differences between these concepts are investigated. The generalization of the essence of the terms “solvency” and “liquidity” is carried out on the basis of researches of various scholars. Also, the economic standards set by the National Bank of Ukraine were considered in order to protect the interests of clients and ensure the financial reliability of banking institutions.
Conclusions. After considering the concept of solvency and liquidity of the banking institution, we can say that they are very close and mean the ability of the bank to fulfill its financial obligations, but nevertheless the category of liquidity is more spacious, and its degree depends on solvency. Another difference between these concepts is that liquidity support is a matter for the bank itself and it chooses the ways of its support at the level of established norms, then the solvency of the bank is more relevant to the functions of the state, namely, the National Bank of Ukraine.
Keywords: solvency of a banking institution, bank liquidity, financial stability, solvency norm, liquidity norm.
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